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literature on confusable diseases for BPS  

ESSIC uses the name bladder pain syndrome (BPS) instead of interstitial cystitis (IC) and/or painful bladder syndrome (PBS):
click here
for more details.


confusable versus associated diseases

The words "confusable disease" and "associated disease" are always used in connection with another disease, in our situation in connection with BPS.

For BPS, a confusable disease is a disease which may show similar symptoms and/or signs to those of BPS. In general, such a confusable disease needs to be excluded as the main cause of the symptoms and/or signs before a diagnosis of BPS can be made. In practice, the situation may be more complex as the presence of a confusable disease does not necessarily exclude the presence of BPS as well. If both a confusable disease and BPS are present, it is clear that for individual diagnoses of patients and for epidemiological studies, the presence of a confusable disease should not exclude a diagnosis of BPS. For many scientific studies, on the other hand, e.g. for studies on the effect of a particular treatment, only patients with BPS without an additional confusable disease should be accepted as the confusable disease may severely interfere with outcome parameters of such a study.

BPS has several associated diseases. Associated diseases are diseases with a higher prevalence among patients with BPS than in the general population. This does not necessarily imply a causal relationship between BPS and the associated disease. The practical consequence of associated diseases is that medical professionals should know these associations and should have a high index of suspicion for the associated diseases.

general aspects of confusable diseases
confusable diseases


  other bladder conditions  

  • bladder neck obstruction
  • bladder stone and lower ureteric stone


  • incomplete bladder emptying (retention)

  urinary tract infections  

  gynaecological conditions  

  • vaginal candidiasis

  male diseases  

  • Human Papilloma Virus

  cystitis: other causes  


  • urogenital prolapse
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